From left to right: Front Elevation, Side Elevation, Back Elevation

            From left to right: Front Elevation, Side Elevation, Back Elevation


For centuries architects have started with a form and added ornamentation. This work instead does the opposite - it starts with a solid block and hundreds of thousands of spheres and cones are carved out, first by hand and then through mathematical computer algorithms that ultimately generates the form.

                                                                                                                                  Front Entrance

                                                                                                                                  Front Entrance

                                                                          Interior View

                                                                          Interior View


Ornamental Structure



The space is entirely composed of subtracting over 7.7 million spheres and 2.3 million cones from one single box. My first tests began by carving out 80,000 cones and spheres manually, and was further developed using algorithms that advanced the design process of generating the space.

                                                                                                                           Interior Cross Section

                                                                                                                           Interior Cross Section


Digital Fabrication: 3D Printing with Sandstone

To verify the material feasibility of the generated design, 1:1 construction tests were 3D printed on sandstone. These tests established a prototype through which to justify the number, location, and radius of the spheres and cones within the generated space. The 1:1 scale prototypes are displayed at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich) in Zürich, Switzerland.


Fabrication Process


Acknowledgements / Thank you to:

Hasan, Ruby Anne, Michael, Christine and Anne Fard

Rob Conte and Team

Prof. David J. Lieberman

Michael Hansmeyer

Thesis Advisors

Dr. Brady Peters, University of Toronto
Dr. Benjamin Dillenburger, Prof. Fabio Gramazio, Prof. Matthias Kohler and Mr. David Jenny, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zürich

University of Toronto

Mr. Timothy Boll, Mr. Chris J. Young, Mr. Thomas Abromaitis


Mr. Philippe Steiner, Mr. Michael Thoma


Sierra Spray Painting, Bolton, Ontario, Canada

ExOne, Michigan, USA